Arab Business Review



Abstract— These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for Arab Business Review (ABR). Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Office Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise, use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at  Arab Business Society. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column.


Index Terms—About four key words or phrases in alphabetical order, separated by commas.



  Highlight a section that you want to designate with a certain style, and then select the appropriate name on the style menu. The style will adjust your fonts and line spacing. Do not change the font sizes or line spacing to squeeze more text into a limited number of pages. Use italics for emphasis; do not underline.

Procedure for Paper Submission Review Stage

Submit your manuscript electronically for review.

Final Stage

When you submit your final version, after your paper has been accepted, prepare it in two-column format, including figures and tables.


As said, to insert images in Word, position the cursor at the insertion point and either use Insert | Picture | From File or copy the image to the Windows clipboard and then Edit | Paste Special | Picture (with “Float over text” unchecked).

The authors of the accepted manuscripts will be given a copyright form and the form should accompany your final submission.


If you are using Word, use either the Microsoft Equation Editor or the MathType add-on ( for equations in your paper (Insert | Object | Create New | Microsoft Equation or MathType Equation). “Float over text” should not be selected.


Use either SI (MKS) or CGS as primary units. (SI units are strongly encouraged.) English units may be used as secondary units (in parentheses). This applies to papers in data storage. For example, write “15 Gb/cm2 (100 Gb/in2).” An exception is when English units are used as identifiers in trade, such as “3½ in disk drive.” Avoid combining SI and CGS units, such as current in amperes and magnetic field in oersteds. This often leads to confusion because equations do not balance dimensionally. If you must use mixed units, clearly state the units for each quantity in an equation.

The SI unit for magnetic field strength H is A/m. However, if you wish to use units of T, either refer to magnetic flux density B or magnetic field strength symbolized as µ0H. Use the center dot to separate compound units, e.g., “A·m2.”

Helpful Hints Figures and Tables

Because the final formatting of your paper is limited in scale, you need to position figures and tables at the top and bottom of each column. Large figures and tables may span both columns. Place figure captions below the figures; place table titles above the tables. If your figure has two parts, include the labels “(a)” and “(b)” as part of the artwork. Please verify that the figures and tables you mention in the text actually exist. Do not put borders around the outside of your figures. Use the abbreviation “Fig.” even at the beginning of a sentence. Do not abbreviate “Table.” Tables are numbered with Roman numerals.

Include a note with your final paper indicating that you request color printing. Do not use color unless it is necessary for the proper interpretation of your figures. There is an additional charge for color printing.

Figure axis labels are often a source of confusion. Use words rather than symbols. As an example, write the quantity “Magnetization,” or “Magnetization M,” not just “M.” Put units in parentheses. Do not label axes only with units. As in Fig. 1, for example, write “Magnetization (A/m)” or “Magnetization (Am-1),” not just “A/m.” Do not label axes with a ratio of quantities and units. For example, write “Temperature (K),” not “Temperature/K.”

Multipliers can be especially confusing. Write “Magnetization (kA/m)” or “Magnetization (103 A/m).” Do

not write “Magnetization (A/m) ´ 1000” because the reader would not know whether the top axis label in Fig. 1 meant 16000 A/m or 0.016 A/m. Figure labels should be legible, approximately 8 to 12 point type.


Number citations consecutively in square brackets [1]. The sentence punctuation follows the brackets [2]. Multiple references [2], [3] are each numbered with separate brackets [1]–[3]. When citing a section in a book, please give the relevant page numbers [2]. In sentences, refer simply to the reference number, as in [3]. Do not use “Ref. [3]” or “reference [3]” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Reference [3] shows ... .” Number footnotes separately in superscripts (Insert | Footnote).[1] Place the actual footnote at the bottom of the column in which it is cited; do not put footnotes in the reference list (endnotes). Use letters for table footnotes (see Table I).

Please note that the references at the end of this document are in the preferred referencing style. Give all authors’ names; do not use “et al.” unless there are six authors or more. Use a space after authors' initials. Papers that have not been published should be cited as “unpublished” [4]. Papers that have been submitted for publication should be cited as “submitted for publication” [5]. Papers that have been accepted for publication, but not yet specified for an issue should be cited as “to be published” [6]. Please give affiliations and addresses for private communications [7].

Abbreviations and Acronyms

Define abbreviations and acronyms the first time they are used in the text, even after they have already been defined in the abstract. Abbreviations such as SI, ac, and dc do not have to be defined. Abbreviations that incorporate periods should not have spaces: write “C.N.R.S.,” not “C. N. R. S.” Do not use abbreviations in the title unless they are unavoidable (for example, “EURASIAN RESEARCH JOURNAL” in the title of this article).


Number equations consecutively with equation numbers in parentheses flush with the right margin, as in (1). First use the equation editor to create the equation. Then select the “Equation” markup style. Press the tab key and write the equation number in parentheses. To make your equations more compact, you may use the solidus ( / ), the exp function, or appropriate exponents. Use parentheses to avoid ambiguities in denominators. Punctuate equations when they are part of a sentence, as in



Be sure that the symbols in your equation have been defined before the equation appears or immediately following. Italicize symbols (T might refer to temperature, but T is the unit tesla). Refer to “(1),” not “Eq. (1)” or “equation (1),” except at the beginning of a sentence: “Equation (1) is ... .”

Other Recommendations

Use one space after periods and colons. Hyphenate complex modifiers: “zero-field-cooled magnetization.” Avoid dangling participles, such as, “Using (1), the potential was calculated.” [It is not clear who or what used (1).] Write instead, “The potential was calculated by using (1),” or “Using (1), we calculated the potential.”

Use a zero before decimal points: “0.25,” not “.25.” Use “cm3,” not “cc.” Indicate sample dimensions as “0.1 cm ´ 0.2 cm,” not “0.1 ´ 0.2 cm2.” The abbreviation for “seconds” is “s,” not “sec.” Do not mix complete spellings and abbreviations of units: use “Wb/m2” or “webers per square meter,” not “webers/m2.” When expressing a range of values, write “7 to 9” or “7-9,” not “7~9.”

A parenthetical statement at the end of a sentence is punctuated outside of the closing parenthesis (like this). (A parenthetical sentence is punctuated within the parentheses.) In American English, periods and commas are within quotation marks, like “this period.” Other punctuation is “outside”! Avoid contractions; for example, write “do not” instead of “don’t.” The serial comma is preferred: “A, B, and C” instead of “A, B and C.”

If you wish, you may write in the first person singular or plural and use the active voice (“I observed that ...” or “We observed that ...” instead of “It was observed that ...”). Remember to check spelling. If your native language is not English, please get a native English-speaking colleague to proofread your paper.

Some Common Mistakes

The word “data” is plural, not singular. The subscript for the permeability of vacuum µ0 is zero, not a lowercase letter “o.” The term for residual magnetization is “remanence”; the adjective is “remanent”; do not write “remnance” or “remnant.” Use the word “micrometer” instead of “micron.” A graph within a graph is an “inset,” not an “insert.” The word “alternatively” is preferred to the word “alternately” (unless you really mean something that alternates). Use the word “whereas” instead of “while” (unless you are referring to simultaneous events). Do not use the word “essentially” to mean “approximately” or “effectively.” Do not use the word “issue” as a euphemism for “problem.” When compositions are not specified, separate chemical symbols by en-dashes; for example, “NiMn” indicates the intermetallic compound Ni0.5Mn0.5 whereas “Ni–Mn” indicates an alloy of some composition NixMn1-x.


Be aware of the different meanings of the homophones “affect” (usually a verb) and “effect” (usually a noun), “complement” and “compliment,” “discreet” and “discrete,” “principal” (e.g., “principal investigator”) and “principle” (e.g., “principle of measurement”). Do not confuse “imply” and “infer.”

Prefixes such as “non,” “sub,” “micro,” “multi,” and “"ultra” are not independent words; they should be joined to the words they modify, usually without a hyphen. There is no period after the “et” in the Latin abbreviation “et al.” (it is also italicized). The abbreviation “i.e.,” means “that is,” and the abbreviation “e.g.,” means “for example” (these abbreviations are not italicized).

An excellent style manual and source of information for science writers is [9].


Editorial Policy

The submitting author is responsible for obtaining agreement of all coauthors and any consent required from sponsors before submitting a paper. It is the obligation of the authors to cite relevant prior work.

Authors of rejected papers may revise and resubmit them to the journal again.


Publication Principles

The contents of the journal are peer-reviewed and archival. The journal ARAB BUSINESS REVIEW (ABR) publishes scholarly articles of archival value as well as tutorial expositions and critical reviews of classical subjects and topics of current interest.

Authors should consider the following points:

  1. Technical papers submitted for publication must advance the state of knowledge and must cite relevant prior work.
  2. The length of a submitted paper should be commensurate with the importance, or appropriate to the complexity, of the work. For example, an obvious extension of previously published work might not be appropriate for publication or might be adequately treated in just a few pages.
  3. Authors must convince both peer reviewers and the editors of the scientific and technical merit of a paper; the standards of proof are higher when extraordinary or unexpected results are reported.
  4. Because replication is required for scientific progress, papers submitted for publication must provide sufficient information to allow readers to perform similar experiments or calculations and use the reported results. Although not everything need be disclosed, a paper must contain new, useable, and fully described information. For example, a specimen's chemical composition need


not be reported if the main purpose of a paper is to introduce a new measurement technique. Authors should expect to be challenged by reviewers if the results are not supported by adequate data and critical details.



A conclusion section is not required. Although a conclusion may review the main points of the paper, do not replicate the abstract as the conclusion. A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions.


Appendixes, if needed, appear before the acknowledgment.


The preferred spelling of the word “acknowledgment” in American English is without an “e” after the “g.” Use the singular heading even if you have many acknowledgments. Avoid expressions such as “One of us (S.B.A.) would like to thank ... .” Instead, write “F. A. Author thanks ... .” Sponsor and financial support acknowledgments are placed in the unnumbered footnote on the first page.




  1. S. Chen, B. Mulgrew, and P. M. Grant, “A clustering technique for digital communications channel equalization using radial basis function networks,” IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks, vol. 4, pp. 570-578, July 1993.
  2. J. U. Duncombe, “Infrared navigation—Part I: An assessment of feasibility,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-11, pp. 34-39, Jan. 1959.


  1. C. Y. Lin, M. Wu, J. A. Bloom, I. J. Cox, and M. Miller, “Rotation, scale, and translation resilient public watermarking for images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 767-782, May 2001.








First Author personal profile which contains their education details, their publications, research work, membership, achievements, with photo that will be maximum 200-400 words.

                Second Author personal profile which contains their education details, their publications, research work, membership, achievements, with photo that will be maximum 200-400 words.

Third Author personal profile which contains their education details, their publications, research work, membership, achievements, with photo that will be maximum 200-400 words.